Perhaps one of the greatest arguments for intelligent design is the fine tuning of universal physical constants. These fundamental constants are universal, with specifically fixed values. In fact, these values are so precise that if any of them varied by a fraction of a fraction, the universe could not exist!
Furthermore, with so many specifically fixed values dictating the composition and behavior of our universe, it is hard to fathom it all being random. Let’s look at the statistical probability of a randomly generated universe. The odds of our highly calibrated and tuned universe being random is a mathematical improbability!
Fine Tuning of Universal Physical Constants
|Atomic Mass Unit||mu||1.66053873(13) x 10-27 kg|
|Avogadro’s Number||NA||6.02214199(47) x 1023 mol-1|
|Bohr Magneton||B||9.27400899(37) x 10-24 J T-1|
|Bohr Radius||ao||0.5291772083(19) x 10-10 m|
|Boltzmann’s Constant||k||1.3806503(24) x 10-23 J K-1|
|Compton Wavelength||c||2.426310215(18) x 10-12 m|
|Deuteron Mass||md||3.34358309(26) x 10-27 kg|
|Electric Constant||o||8.854187817 x 10-12 F m-1|
|Electron Mass||me||9.10938188(72) x 10-31 kg|
|Electron-Volt||eV||1.602176462(63) x 10-19 J|
|Elementary Charge||e||1.602176462(63) x 10-19 C|
|Faraday Constant||F||9.64853415(39) x 104 C mol-1|
|Fine Structure Constant||7.297352533(27) x 10-3|
|Hartree Energy||Eh||4.35974381(34) x 10-18 J|
|Hydrogen Ground State||13.6057 eV|
|Josephson Constant||Kj||4.83597898(19) x 1014 Hz V-1|
|Magnetic Constant||o||4 x 10-7|
|Molar Gas Constant||R||8.314472(15) J K-1 mol-1|
|Natural Unit of Action||1.054571596(82) x 10-34 J s|
|Newtonian Constant of Gravitation||G||6.673(10) x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2|
|Neutron Mass||mn||1.67492716(13) x 10-27 kg|
|Nuclear Magneton||n||5.05078317(20) x 10-27 J T-1|
|Planck Constant||h||6.62606876(52) x 10-34 J s
h = 2
|Planck Length||lp||1.6160(12) x 10-35 m|
|Planck Mass||mp||2.1767(16) x 10-8 kg|
|Planck Time||tp||5.3906(40) x 10-44 s|
|Proton Mass||mP||1.67262158(13) x 10-27 kg|
|Rydberg Constant||RH||10 9.73731568549(83) x 105 m-1|
|Stefan Boltzmann Constant||5.670400(40) x 10-8 W m-2 K-4|
|Speed of Light in Vacuum||c||2.99792458 x 108 m s-1|
|Thompson Cross Section||e||0.665245854(15) x 10-28 m2|
|Wien Displacement Law Constant||b||2.8977686(51) x 10-3 m K|
Conclusion: Naturalistic Argument
When you look at the fine tuning of universal physical constants, it is hard to imagine it all being random. And when we look into the statistics and probabilities, the case for intelligent design becomes even greater. The highly precise and meticulous nature of our universe makes it difficult to argue for a randomly generated cosmos.
When we look at these fixed constants, it would appear that there is only one logical, naturalistic argument against intelligent design. If one acknowledges the fine tuning of universal physical constants but still holds to a randomly generated universe, there can only be one alternative.
The only other option is that there are an infinite number of naturalistic universes (or multiverse theory), all with varying values. These unobservable, theoretical universes would be the only valid explanation for a randomly generated universe with such complexity. Assuming this is true, we hit the proverbial jackpot to find ourselves in one with just the right values, permitting life.
And to this argument, I would first contend that theoretical universes are not scientific. Science relies solely on experimentation and observation. We can not test or observe these other theoretical universes. There is no way for us to ascertain whether or not this theory is valid.
Secondly, I will defer to a quote from Isaac Newton:
“Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.”