The Second Law of Thermodynamics Debunks Evolution

The theory of evolution is widely accepted academically as the source of life as we know it. But is this theory actually scientifically valid? Does evolution hold true when tested and tried by science? Here we will examine why the second law of thermodynamics debunks evolution.

Evolution is absolutely paramount to the atheistic worldview. Without it, atheists would need a new explanation for the current state of life on our planet. Let’s examine evolution and see if it actually stands up to science.

The Laws of Thermodynamics

But what is the second law of thermodynamics exactly? Why exactly does it debunk or discredit the theory evolution? To begin, lets look at all of the laws of thermodynamics:

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperatureenergy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion).

These laws are fundamental laws of physics. They explain physical phenomena and behavior in regards to temperature, energy and entropy. The laws of thermodynamics are absolutely crucial in understanding how the physical world (i.e. everything in the universe) operates.

But since we are focusing only on the second law of thermodynamics, lets take a closer look.

Entropy

The second law of thermodynamics deals with entropy in an isolated system. In order to fully understand this law, we need to first define and clarify what entropy is. Entropy is defined as:

a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system’s thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.

In other words, entropy is the level of disorder or degeneration of a system. It is essentially the natural process of disintegration of a system. Entropy is often used to describe the “Arrow of Time”, which asserts that certain processes move in a one way direction with respect to time, and can’t be reversed.

An natural example of entropy would be aging. Aging is a process of degradation and degeneration directly related to time. The more time that goes by, the more the human body breaks down and degenerates. This is an inevitable and irreversible process which all life, whether human, plant, animal, etc., is subject to.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics Debunks Evolution

We will examine why the second law of thermodynamics directly contradicts evolution. But what exactly is this law and how is it related to evolution? The second law of thermodynamics states:

that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time. In all spontaneous processes, the total entropy always increases and the process is irreversible.

This law concludes the more time goes by, the more a system (i.e. carbon life) breaks down and degenerates. The more time goes by, more entropy there is. This implies that systems do not improve over time, but rather diminish over time.

Evolution Contradicts the Second Law of Thermodynamics

This is why the second law of thermodynamics debunks evolution. Evolution is defined as:

the gradual development of something, especially from a simple to a more complex form.

However based on the second law of thermodynamics, we see that things do not develop over time, but rather break down and decay. Evolution directly contradicts this law claiming that systems can actually improve over time, even becoming more complex! These two concepts obviously conflict with each other.

 

The Main Reasons Why People Practice the Occult

There has been a massive influx of occult practices lately, especially in western society. Western culture and entertainment are saturated with occult books, TV, and movies. But what is the appeal of the occult? What is the main reason why people practice the occult?

What is the “Occult”?

First off, let us define what the occult is. The actual word “occult” has roots in the Latin occultus, which means “hidden, secret.” Occult practices range from various denominations and sects. The main branches include:

The occult does not appear to be going away anytime soon either. There has been a resurgence of occult practice in America within the last few decades. In fact, according to the last U.S. census of 2010, witchcraft had become the 4th largest religion in the United States. This same census revealed there are more practicing occultists than there are Muslims or Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Main Reasons Why People Practice the Occult

We can clearly observe the rising popularity of the occult, especially in the West. But why has there been this massive flood of occultism as of late? Why are people flocking to this like never before?

Many occultists I have spoken and listened to have expressed many of the same reasons as to why they got involved initially. I have found many common themes and parallels in these testimonies. Most of these similarities seem to have psychological roots. Here are the two most common reasons why people seem to begin dabbling in the occult.

Counterculture Rebel Mentality

One of the main reasons why people practice the occult is due to the counterculture mentality. The counterculture movement has been around for a long time. But what is “counterculture” exactly and what does it mean? Counterculture is defined as:

“a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes.”

Some of the most famous counterculture movements in history have occurred in Europe, North America. These movements include:

In interviews and testimonies, many occultists expressed a similar disillusionment or disenchantment with conventional religion. Many of these testimonies are from former Christians and Jews, or people who were raised in a religious household. There seems to be a correlation between former practitioners of conventional religion and interest in the occult.

What this says to me is that the occult has become a counterculture movement against organized religion, especially Christianity. After Christianity spread and laid the foundation for the Western world & culture, it became the prevailing, conventional worldview. The monotheistic religion of Christianity, but also Judaism and Islam, had become the mainstream. All the while the occult steadily grew an underground, counterculture following.

Whenever anything becomes mainstream or conventional, there is typically always a counterculture mentality and movement. It seems to be a characteristic of human nature to rebel against the status quo. There is something in the psyche of all of us which compels us to go against the grain. Especially when something becomes popular, there is an air of “coolness” to be an iconoclast.

The Allure of the Unknown & Inaccessible

The second common reason why people practice the occult is the mystery behind it. In many interviews and testimonies, practitioners express an appeal or seduction to the mysterious teaching of the occult. Because the teachings are obscure and fringe, they play into the human psychology of desiring the unknown and inaccessible.

Matt Wallaert, Behavioral Scientist at Bing, explains this phenomenon:

“People love secrets revealed; even for very young children, the surest way to make someone want something is to tell them they can’t have it. Even better when it is a celebrity, because it seems unusual, exotic.”

For whatever reason, the human psyche is drawn and allured to the unknown and the inaccessible. If something is mysterious or unavailable to us, we yearn for it that much more. The occult plays into these human tendencies because it is “hidden knowledge” and is usually only available to initiates of a secret group or society.

However, just because something is secret or hidden, does not mean it is the truth.

Conclusion: The Occult is Real & Dangerous

This is not to say that the occult should be taken lightly. I do not believe the rise in the occult is merely due to rebellion. I do believe there are powerful, dark forces behind these practices, making them dangerous and evil. In no way is this article attempting to belittle the danger and repercussions of practicing the occult.

Find out more about world religions and why Christianity is set apart from all the rest.

Fine Tuning of Universal Physical Constants: Intelligent Design

Perhaps one of the greatest arguments for intelligent design is the fine tuning of universal physical constants. These fundamental constants are universal, with specifically fixed values. In fact, these values are so precise that if any of them varied by a fraction of a fraction, the universe could not exist!

Furthermore, with so many specifically fixed values dictating the composition and behavior of our universe, it is hard to fathom it all being random. Let’s look at the statistical probability of a randomly generated universe. The odds of our highly calibrated and tuned universe being random is a mathematical improbability!

Fine Tuning of Universal Physical Constants

Name Symbol Value
Atomic Mass Unit mu 1.66053873(13) x 10-27 kg
Avogadro’s Number NA 6.02214199(47) x 1023 mol-1
Bohr Magneton B 9.27400899(37) x 10-24 J T-1
Bohr Radius ao 0.5291772083(19) x 10-10 m
Boltzmann’s Constant k 1.3806503(24) x 10-23 J K-1
Compton Wavelength c 2.426310215(18) x 10-12 m
Deuteron Mass md 3.34358309(26) x 10-27 kg
Electric Constant o 8.854187817 x 10-12 F m-1
Electron Mass me 9.10938188(72) x 10-31 kg
Electron-Volt eV 1.602176462(63) x 10-19 J
Elementary Charge e 1.602176462(63) x 10-19 C
Faraday Constant F 9.64853415(39) x 104 C mol-1
Fine Structure Constant 7.297352533(27) x 10-3
Hartree Energy Eh 4.35974381(34) x 10-18 J
Hydrogen Ground State 13.6057 eV
Josephson Constant Kj 4.83597898(19) x 1014 Hz V-1
Magnetic Constant o 4 x 10-7
Molar Gas Constant R 8.314472(15) J K-1 mol-1
Natural Unit of Action 1.054571596(82) x 10-34 J s
Newtonian Constant of Gravitation G 6.673(10) x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2
Neutron Mass mn 1.67492716(13) x 10-27 kg
Nuclear Magneton n 5.05078317(20) x 10-27 J T-1
Planck Constant h 6.62606876(52) x 10-34 J s
h = 2 
Planck Length lp 1.6160(12) x 10-35 m
Planck Mass mp 2.1767(16) x 10-8 kg
Planck Time tp 5.3906(40) x 10-44 s
Proton Mass mP 1.67262158(13) x 10-27 kg
Rydberg Constant RH 10 9.73731568549(83) x 105 m-1
Stefan Boltzmann Constant 5.670400(40) x 10-8 W m-2 K-4
Speed of Light in Vacuum c 2.99792458 x 108 m s-1
Thompson Cross Section e 0.665245854(15) x 10-28 m2
Wien Displacement Law Constant b 2.8977686(51) x 10-3 m K

Conclusion: Naturalistic Argument

When you look at the fine tuning of universal physical constants, it is hard to imagine it all being random. And when we look into the statistics and probabilities, the case for intelligent design becomes even greater. The highly precise and meticulous nature of our universe makes it difficult to argue for a randomly generated cosmos.

When we look at these fixed constants, it would appear that there is only one logical, naturalistic argument against intelligent design. If one acknowledges the fine tuning of universal physical constants but still holds to a randomly generated universe, there can only be one alternative.

The only other option is that there are an infinite number of naturalistic universes (or multiverse theory), all with varying values. These unobservable, theoretical universes would be the only valid explanation for a randomly generated universe with such complexity. Assuming this is true, we hit the proverbial jackpot to find ourselves in one with just the right values, permitting life.

And to this argument, I would first contend that theoretical universes are not scientific. Science relies solely on experimentation and observation. We can not test or observe these other theoretical universes. There is no way for us to ascertain whether or not this theory is valid.

Secondly, I will defer to a quote from Isaac Newton:

“Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.”

 

Jesus Christ Allegory: We Live in a Computer Program

Jesus Christ is one of the most notable figures in history. However, many people still do no actually KNOW or understand his purpose on earth. While Christians know Jesus and his sacrifice for all of humanity, others may not see the whole picture. Perhaps a Jesus Christ allegory could help those who don’t believe to understand. Let’s imagine we live in a computer program and Jesus Christ is the antivirus.

We Live in a Computer Program

If you believe in an afterlife, or conscious existence beyond this world, then it is not too far fetched to imagine this Jesus Christ allegory that involves us in a computer program. In fact, a few scientists have speculated this and believe the “Simulation hypothesis“, that we could be living in a type of simulation.

If there is a transcendent reality beyond this world, then we could make the claim that we are living in a simulation; or a reality less “real” than it’s metaphysical counterpart. As if we are seeing the ultimate and true reality through a physical filter, prohibiting us from observing the spiritual world.

The definition of simulation is:

imitation of a situation or process.

So if there is a higher realm of reality, perhaps we find ourselves in the imitation version; the lower reality based on the ultimate and true one. And maybe we will find this simulation of the lower reality operates and functions like that of a computer program. Perhaps this Jesus Christ allegory is not such a stretch of the imagination…

Parameters of Reality

Perhaps this world that we find ourselves in is more like a computer program than we realize. Our “reality” is governed by physical laws and rules, much like a program or function is. These rules hold our universe in place and determine what is possible and what is not.

There are certain parameters or rules like the universal constants of the universe, which dictate how our world behaves. It is almost as if there was an intelligent being writing a hyper-complex function which built and maintains the universe. A programmer inputting highly specific parameters of a finely tuned universe, which if altered in the slightest degree would lead to nonexistence. And if we look at the statistically improbability of a Godless universe, we discover how complex and intelligent our world truly is.

Jesus Christ Allegory: Code Programming

DNA Programming Language

So on the macro level, our universe is comprised of certain rules or guidelines much like parameters in a computer program. Additionally, if we dig deeper on a micro level, we discover another highly sophisticated programming language woven into the very fabric of life – DNA.

DNA is one of the most compelling parallels of a computer program.

DNA is the fundamental building block of our universe and every living organism within. It is literally the source code which programs every single individual cell, organism, animal, plant & human life in this world.

Not only that, but DNA is extremely complex. If we compare it to Google’s most complex search algorithm, DNA would make that code look novice. It is the most intricate coding language ever observed, and it just so happens to be the building block of all organic matter. The more we look at the complexity of our universe, the more this Jesus Christ allegory comes to life.

Jesus Christ Allegory: The Corrupted Computer Program

After analyzing some of our universe’s characteristics, this Jesus Christ allegory will really come to life.

Our earth, our world inside our universe, inside of the multiverse, everything physical thing there is, is one giant computer program. The developer took many precautions and meticulously programmed the world without any bugs or glitches. The perfect software (reality/life).

However, this hypothetical web-based software would be compromised. Once the user (mankind) installs the program, he has the liberty to use it anyway he desires. He can either use his agency to use the software properly as intended, or improperly and against the Master Programmer’s (God’s) design.

Unfortunately, he uses the software improperly, making the program vulnerable to viruses (sin). This slip up causes the computer program to be exposed to a virus. After this virus gets in, it begins to multiply and spread like a disease. It eventually corrupts the entire program.

There is nothing the user can do at this point.

The software is now unsalvageable, and it is now destined to crash. There is nothing the user can ever do to recover the program.

The Antivirus Patch

Eventually, the Master Programmer sees this problem affecting all of the users. That one exposure to the system infected the Master Programmer’s source files and updated all of the users’ code with the malicious files. He had to do something to save his program.

The Master Programmer eventually updates the source code with an antivirus patch (Jesus Christ). This patch would salvage all of the code for each and every single user. This was a free update for all of the users.

However, the only thing required of the users was to accept the free patch update. By simply accepting the patch, the users software would be scrubbed clean of the viruses. Now the user would be able to use the software forever.

Even though the users infected the perfect software on their own, the Master Programmer went to their aid. He gave them a free patch which required no work or effort on their part.

The only thing the user had to do was accept the antivirus update.

Seal of the Prophet Isaiah Biblical Archaeological Find

Archaeologists have made a discovery which they believe is more evidence of the historicity of the Bible. In 2015, archaeologists discovered what they believe to be the seal of the Prophet Isaiah, during excavations just below the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The mark bore the name of the Old Testament prophet, providing more archaeological evidence of the Bible’s validity.

Seal of the Prophet Isaiah

Isaiah was a prominent figure in the Old Testament of the Bible. He was a prolific prophet who had immense influence on kings and rulers because of his God-given foresight. The prophet made numerous predictions, including his Isaiah 53 prophecy about the coming Messiah.

During excavations in the Ophel, located just below the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, archaeologists found what they believe to be the personal seal of the Prophet Isaiah. The seal or mark is estimated to be around 2,700 years old, dating back to the 7th century B.C.E. Dr. Eilat Mazar from the Hebrew University made the discovery directly next to the seal of king Hezekiah (pictured below).
Bulla or seal of King Hezekiah Bible
Mazar commented on the discovery:

“We appear to have discovered a seal impression, which may have belonged to the prophet Isaiah, in a scientific, archaeological excavation,”

Debate on the Incomplete Seal

The bulla (a clay impression of a seal) , which is only about half an inch wide, has the Hebrew name “Yesha’yah[u]” or Isaiah inscribed on it. However, the seal is partially damaged and missing a section of the inscription. Immediately following the name Isaiah are the letters “NVY”. Mazar speculates that the “NVY” is only part of a whole word beginning with the Hebrew letter “aleph”. Thus, the completed seal would spell out the Hebrew word for prophet.

However there is some dispute on whether or not the “NVY” was actually part of the Hebrew word for prophet. Skeptics speculate that it could have been a completely different word. A professor of Semitic languages at George Washington University named Christopher Rollston has issues with Mazar’s interpretation.

Rollston argues that the word “NVY” is missing a definite article. This means that the completed seal would say, “Belonging to Isaiah prophet.” Rollston goes on to explain that in the Bible, it is more common for people to have the title “the prophet”, rather than merely “prophet”.

However, the location where the seal was found only further substantiates it’s authenticity. Because the seal of the Prophet Isaiah was found directly next to King Hezekiah’s, we have further proof that the bulla did in fact belong to Isaiah.

Prophet Isaiah & King Hezekiah

The Prophet Isaiah and King Hezekiah were contemporaries. Both figures lived during the same time period, as well as the same region. King Hezekiah reigned as the 12th king of the Kingdom of Judah, from around 727 B.C.E. to around 698 B.C.E. And if we read the Bible, we find that the two historical figures interacted with one another.

King Hezekiah was a vassal king of the Assyrian ruler Sennacherib. However the Jews rebelled and lead a revolt against the king. This revolt didn’t go as planned and lead to Jerusalem being besieged by the Assyrians in 701 B.C.E. Distraught, King Hezekiah went to Isaiah for guidance.

Isaiah 38:1 describes the interaction between the Prophet Isaiah and Hezekiah:

“In those days was Hezekiah sick unto death. And Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz came to him, and said unto him: ‘Thus saith the Lord: Set thy house in order; for thou shalt die, and not live”.

After Hezekiah’s counseling with Isaiah, he repents of his wickedness and asks for forgiveness. Later in Isaiah 38:4-6 we read:

“Then came the word of the Lord to Isaiah, saying: ‘Go, and say to Hezekiah: Thus saith the Lord, the God of David thy father: I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears; behold, I will add unto thy days 15 years. And I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city”.

Conclusion

The fact that the seal of the Prophet Isaiah was found directly next to King Hezekiah’s bulla, is compelling evidence of it’s validity. Historical evidence confirms that the two figures from the Bible were contemporaries, living in the same time period in the same location. We also see that the Bible clearly confirms a relationship between the two historical figures. When we take all of this into consideration, it seems to dispel most of the doubt surrounding the seal of the Prophet Isaiah.

9 Secular Extra-Biblical Sources Supporting Jesus Christ

When talking with non-Christians, I often hear a very common rebuttal. Despite the fact that the Bible is actually 66 books with approximately 40 different authors, many non-believers have trouble believing accounts from “one book”. However we have nine secular extra-Biblical sources which support Jesus Christ.

Secular Extra-Biblical Sources:

Whether you believe in Jesus or not, many people throughout history have referenced him and his life. After looking at all of the accounts, both Biblical and extra-Biblical, one thing is for certain; you can’t deny the historical Jesus. You may not believe in the deity of Christ, but at the very least, these secular extra-Biblical sources confirm the historical Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Read about what other prominent figures from history have said about Jesus.

The information of these secular extra-Biblical sources comes from an amazing article I stumbled upon on Christian-Apologist.com.

1) Josephus (37 AD – 100; Antiquities):

“At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good and [he] was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. And those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion and that he was alive; accordingly, he was perhaps the Messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.”

 


 

2) Tacitus (56 AD – 117; Annals 15:44):

“Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular.”

 


 

3) Pliny the Younger (61 AD -113; Letters [to Emperor Trajan] 10:96-97):

“It is my practice, my lord, to refer to you all matters concerning which I am in doubt. For who can better give guidance to my hesitation or inform my ignorance? I have never participated in trials of Christians. I therefore do not know what offenses it is the practice to punish or investigate, and to what extent. And I have been not a little hesitant as to whether there should be any distinction on account of age or no difference between the very young and the more mature; whether pardon is to be granted for repentance, or, if a man has once been a Christian, it does him no good to have ceased to be one; whether the name itself, even without offenses, or only the offenses associated with the name are to be punished.

Meanwhile, in the case of those who were denounced to me as Christians, I have observed the following procedure: I interrogated these as to whether they were Christians; those who confessed I interrogated a second and a third time, threatening them with punishment; those who persisted I ordered executed. For I had no doubt that, whatever the nature of their creed, stubbornness and inflexible obstinacy surely deserve to be punished. There were others possessed of the same folly; but because they were Roman citizens, I signed an order for them to be transferred to Rome.

Soon accusations spread, as usually happens, because of the proceedings going on, and several incidents occurred. An anonymous document was published containing the names of many persons. Those who denied that they were or had been Christians, when they invoked the gods in words dictated by me, offered prayer with incense and wine to your image, which I had ordered to be brought for this purpose together with statues of the gods, and moreover cursed Christ–none of which those who are really Christians, it is said, can be forced to do–these I thought should be discharged. Others named by the informer declared that they were Christians, but then denied it, asserting that they had been but had ceased to be, some three years before, others many years, some as much as twenty-five years. They all worshipped your image and the statues of the gods, and cursed Christ.

They asserted, however, that the sum and substance of their fault or error had been that they were accustomed to meet on a fixed day before dawn and sing responsively a hymn to Christ as to a god, and to bind themselves by oath, not to some crime, but not to commit fraud, theft, or adultery, not falsify their trust, nor to refuse to return a trust when called upon to do so. When this was over, it was their custom to depart and to assemble again to partake of food–but ordinary and innocent food. Even this, they affirmed, they had ceased to do after my edict by which, in accordance with your instructions, I had forbidden political associations. Accordingly, I judged it all the more necessary to find out what the truth was by torturing two female slaves who were called deaconesses. But I discovered nothing else but depraved, excessive superstition.

I therefore postponed the investigation and hastened to consult you. For the matter seemed to me to warrant consulting you, especially because of the number involved. For many persons of every age, every rank, and also of both sexes are and will be endangered. For the contagion of this superstition has spread not only to the cities but also to the villages and farms. But it seems possible to check and cure it. It is certainly quite clear that the temples, which had been almost deserted, have begun to be frequented, that the established religious rites, long neglected, are being resumed, and that from everywhere sacrificial animals are coming, for which until now very few purchasers could be found. Hence it is easy to imagine what a multitude of people can be reformed if an opportunity for repentance is afforded.

Trajan to Pliny the Younger

You observed proper procedure, my dear Pliny, in sifting the cases of those who had been denounced to you as Christians. For it is not possible to lay down any general rule to serve as a kind of fixed standard. They are not to be sought out; if they are denounced and proved guilty, they are to be punished, with this reservation, that whoever denies that he is a Christian and really proves it–that is, by worshiping our gods–even though he was under suspicion in the past, shall obtain pardon through repentance. But anonymously posted accusations ought to have no place in any prosecution. For this is both a dangerous kind of precedent and out of keeping with the spirit of our age.”

 


 

4) Lucian (115 AD – 200; The Works of Lucian of Samosata):

Lucian referred to Christians as “poor wretches” who have “persuaded themselves that they will be immortal.” He said that Christians “revered him [fraud leader Peregrinus] as a god…next after that whom they still, worship, the man crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world.”

 


 

5) Celsus (late 2nd century AD; from Contra Celsus by Origen):

Celsus accuses [Jesus] of having “invented his birth from a virgin,” and upbraids Him with being “born in a certain Jewish village, of a poor woman of the country, who gained her subsistence by spinning, and who was turned out of doors by her husband, a carpenter by trade, because she was convicted of adultery; that after being driven away by her husband, and wandering about for a time, she disgracefully gave birth to Jesus, an illegitimate child, who having hired himself out as a servant in Egypt on account of his poverty, and having there acquired some miraculous powers, on which the Egyptians greatly pride themselves, returned to his own country, highly elated on account of them, and by means of these proclaimed himself a God.”…

 


 

6) Mara Bar-Serapion (70 AD – ?):

“What advantage did the Athenians gain from putting Socrates to death? Famine and plague came upon them as a judgment for their crime. What advantage did the men of Samos gain from burning Pythagoras? In a moment their land was covered with sand. What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise King? It was just after that that their kingdom was abolished. God justly avenged these three wise men: the Athenians died of hunger; the Samians were overwhelmed by the sea; the Jews, ruined and driven from their land, live in complete dispersion. But Socrates did not die for good; he lived on in the teaching of Plato. Pythagoras did not die for good; he lived on in the statue of Hera. Nor did the wise King die for good; He lived on in the teaching which He had given.”

 


 

7) Suetonius (Life of Claudius 25.4)

“As the Jews were making constant disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he expelled them from Rome.”

 


 

8) Thallus (5 AD – 60; in Sextus Julius Africanus’ History of the World):

“On the whole world there pressed a most fearful darkness; and the rocks were rent by an earthquake, and many places in Judea and other districts were thrown down. This darkness, Thallus, in the third book of his History, calls as appears to me without reason, an eclipse of the sun.”

 


 

9) Phlegon (80 AD – 140):

“Phlegon records that, in the time of Tiberius Caesar, at full moon, there was a full eclipse of the sun from the sixth hour to the ninth.” (in Sextus Julius Africanus’ History of the World)

“Now Phlegon, in the thirteenth or fourteenth book, I think, of his Chronicles, not only ascribed to Jesus a knowledge of future events (although falling into confusion about some things which refer to Peter, as if they referred to Jesus), but also testified that the result corresponded to his predictions. So that he also, by these very admissions regarding foreknowledge, as if against his will, expressed his opinion that the doctrines taught by the fathers of our system were not devoid of divine power.

And with regard to the eclipse at the time of Tiberius Caesar, in whose reign Jesus appears to have been crucified, and the great earthquakes which then took place, Phlegon too, I think, has written in the thirteenth or fourteenth book of his Chronicles.

He imagines also that both the earthquake and the darkness were an invention; but regarding these, we have in the preceding pages made our defence [sic], according to our ability, adducing the testimony of Phlegon, who relates that these events took place at the time when our Saviour suffered.” (Origen).